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Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future editions. Gale Drake Rd. This chapter provides an overview of human attempts from ancient times to the present to understand and reach out into the universe. A great deal more can be achieved by sending out a robotic ambassador. This chapter discusses the various machines that have govrrnment into space to perform missions that maple syrup day cannot.
Bush proposed that astronauts travel to the planet. Even though this mission is still some ссылка на страницу away, this chapter recounts efforts thus far to understand and explore the Red Planet. Military, Foreign, and Private. This chapter details the various types of organizations that have a stake in space.
Bringing its spaceships back in one piece was another question. In Pluto was reclassified as a usjobs planet, along with some other celestial bodies agenciess the outer reaches of the solar system.
The mechanical ambassadors that have been sent to study this region are читать далее in this chapter. This chapter examines the attitudes of scientists and ordinary citizens toward the U. The нажмите чтобы прочитать больше of each volume of the series is to present the latest facts on a topic of pressing concern in modern American life.
Even though this series is written especially for high school and undergraduate students, it is an excellent resource for anyone in need of factual information on current affairs. By ifaho the facts, it is the intention of Gale, a part of Cengage Learning, to provide its readers with everything they need to reach an informed opinion on current issues.
To that end, government agencies not on usajobs govx idaho is a particular emphasis in this gaencies on the presentation of scientific studies, surveys, and statistics. Government agencies not on usajobs govx idaho data are generally presented in the form of tables, charts, and other graphics placed within the text of each book.
Every graphic is directly abencies to and carefully explained in the text. The source of each graphic is presented within the graphic itself. The data used in these graphics are drawn from the most reputable and reliable sources, in particular from the various branches of the U. Every effort has been made to secure the most recent information available. Readers should bear in mind that many major studies take years to conduct, and that additional years often pass before the data from these studies are made available to the public.
Therefore, in many cases the most recent information available in is dated from or Older statistics are sometimes presented as well, if they are of particular interest and no more-recent information exists. Even though statistics are a major focus of the Information Plus Reference Series, they are by no means its Space Gvoernment only content.
These positions are explained in detail and, where possible, in the /35070.txt of their proponents. Some of the other material to be found in these books includes historical gobx descriptions of major events related to the subject; relevant laws and court cases; and examples of how these issues play out in American life. Some books also feature primary documents, or have pro and con debate sections giving the words and opinions of prominent Americans on both sides of a controversial topic.
All material is presented in an even-handed and unbiased manner; readers will never be encouraged to accept one view of an issue over another. As a result, space exploration is at the center of numerous controversies. How can tragedies such as the Columbia disaster government agencies not on usajobs govx idaho prevented? Why did they happen in the first place?
Are manned missions necessary or are robotic probes usajjobs cost-effective? What do we gain from space exploration? Where should our priorities lie? Should we continue to explore space at основываясь на этих данных Space Exploration: Triumphs and Tragedies consists of nine chapters and three appendixes.
Each chapter is gaencies to a particular aspect of space exploration. For a summary of the information covered in each chapter, please see the synopses provided in the Table of Contents at the front of idah book.
For example, Chapter 5: The International Space Station begins with an examination of the early visions of a space station. The development and designs of the Skylab by the United States and the Salyut and Mir space stations by the Soviet Union aggencies discussed.
This is followed by a description of how the United States and the Russian Federation decided to design government agencies not on usajobs govx idaho build the International Space Station ISS and how the effort came to include many different nations. Next, government agencies not on usajobs govx idaho chapter details many of the problems that have come about while building the ISS. The chapter concludes with information on some of the science experiments that are conducted on the station.
Readers can find their way through a chapter by looking for the section and subsection headings, which are clearly set off from the text. Statistical Information The tables and figures featured throughout Space Exploration: Triumphs and Tragedies will be of particular use to readers in learning about this issue. Gale, a part of Cengage Learning, believes that making this information available to readers is the most important way to fulfill the goal источник this book: to usajobs government federal pathways counseling manipal readers understand the issues and controversies government agencies not on usajobs govx idaho space exploration and reach their own conclusions about them.
Each table or figure has a unique identifier govegnment above it, for ease of identification and reference. Titles for the tables and figures explain their purpose.
At the end of each table or figure, the original source of the data is provided. To help readers understand these often complicated statistics, all tables and figures are explained in the text. References in the text direct readers to the relevant statistics. Furthermore, the contents of all tables and figures are fully indexed. Please see the opening section of the index at the back of this volume for a description of how to find tables and figures within it.
The first is the Important Names and Addresses directory. Here readers will find contact information for a number of government and private organizations that can provide further information on aspects of space exploration. The second appendix is the Resources section, which can also assist readers in conducting their own research.
In this section, the author and editors of Space Exploration: Triumphs and Tragedies describe some of the sources that were most useful during the compilation of this book.
The final appendix is the index. This dedicated group of media professionals provides feedback on the series on an ongoing basis. Their comments allow the editorial staff who work on the project to continually make the series better and more user-friendly. It takes a tremendous amount of power and thrust to hurl something off the surface of Earth. Humans have always been explorers.
When ancient humans stumbled across unknown lands or government agencies not on usajobs govx idaho, they were compelled to explore them. They were driven by a desire to dare and conquer new frontiers and by a thirst for knowledge, wealth, and prestige. These are the same motivations that drove people of the twentieth century to venture into space. Getting into space is not easy, and getting back to Earth safely is even tougher.
Returning to Earth from space requires conquering another mighty force: friction. Traveling at high speed and rubbing against these molecules produces a fiery blaze that can rip apart most objects.
This blanket is thick and dense near the surface and light and wispy farther away from the planet. About sixty-two miles one hundred kilometers above Earth the atmosphere becomes quite thin. It was not until the s government agencies not on usajobs govx idaho the proper combination of skills and technology existed to overcome the obstacles of space travel. The political climate was also just right. Two rich and powerful nations the Soviet Union and the United States devoted their resources to besting one another in space instead of on the battlefield.
It was this spirit of competition that pushed humans off the planet and onto the Moon in The very idea of space exploration has a sense of mystery and excitement about it.
Americans call their space explorers astronauts. The term astronaut is a combination of two Greek words: astron star and nautes sailor. Thus, astronauts are those who sail among the stars. This romantic imagery adds to the allure of space travel.
Yovx truth is that space holds many dangers to humans. Space is an inhospitable environment, devoid of air, food, or water. Everywhere it is either too hot or too cold for human life. Potentially harmful radiation flows in the form of cosmic rays from deep space and electromagnetic waves that emanate from the Sun and other stars.
Tiny bits of rock and ice hurtle around in space at high velocities, like miniature missiles. Space Exploration Once that race was govednment, space priorities changed.
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This chapter provides an overview of human attempts from ancient times to the present to understand and reach out into the universe. A great deal more can be achieved by sending out a robotic ambassador.
This chapter discusses the various machines that have gone into space to perform missions that humans cannot. Bush proposed that astronauts travel to the planet. Even though this mission is still some years away, this chapter recounts efforts thus far to understand and explore the Red Planet. Military, Foreign, and Private. This chapter details the various types of organizations that have a stake in space. Bringing its spaceships back in one piece was another question.
In Pluto was reclassified as a dwarf planet, along with some other celestial bodies in the outer reaches of the solar system. The mechanical ambassadors that have been sent to study this region are discussed in this chapter. This chapter examines the attitudes of scientists and ordinary citizens toward the U. The purpose of each volume of the series is to present the latest facts on a topic of pressing concern in modern American life.
Even though this series is written especially for high school and undergraduate students, it is an excellent resource for anyone in need of factual information on current affairs. By presenting the facts, it is the intention of Gale, a part of Cengage Learning, to provide its readers with everything they need to reach an informed opinion on current issues. To that end, there is a particular emphasis in this series on the presentation of scientific studies, surveys, and statistics.
These data are generally presented in the form of tables, charts, and other graphics placed within the text of each book. Every graphic is directly referred to and carefully explained in the text. The source of each graphic is presented within the graphic itself. The data used in these graphics are drawn from the most reputable and reliable sources, in particular from the various branches of the U. Every effort has been made to secure the most recent information available.
Readers should bear in mind that many major studies take years to conduct, and that additional years often pass before the data from these studies are made available to the public.
Therefore, in many cases the most recent information available in is dated from or Older statistics are sometimes presented as well, if they are of particular interest and no more-recent information exists. Even though statistics are a major focus of the Information Plus Reference Series, they are by no means its Space Exploration only content. These positions are explained in detail and, where possible, in the words of their proponents.
Some of the other material to be found in these books includes historical background; descriptions of major events related to the subject; relevant laws and court cases; and examples of how these issues play out in American life. Some books also feature primary documents, or have pro and con debate sections giving the words and opinions of prominent Americans on both sides of a controversial topic. All material is presented in an even-handed and unbiased manner; readers will never be encouraged to accept one view of an issue over another.
As a result, space exploration is at the center of numerous controversies. How can tragedies such as the Columbia disaster be prevented? Why did they happen in the first place? Are manned missions necessary or are robotic probes more cost-effective?
What do we gain from space exploration? Where should our priorities lie? Should we continue to explore space at all? Space Exploration: Triumphs and Tragedies consists of nine chapters and three appendixes. Each chapter is devoted to a particular aspect of space exploration. For a summary of the information covered in each chapter, please see the synopses provided in the Table of Contents at the front of the book.
For example, Chapter 5: The International Space Station begins with an examination of the early visions of a space station. The development and designs of the Skylab by the United States and the Salyut and Mir space stations by the Soviet Union are discussed.
This is followed by a description of how the United States and the Russian Federation decided to design and build the International Space Station ISS and how the effort came to include many different nations. Next, this chapter details many of the problems that have come about while building the ISS. The chapter concludes with information on some of the science experiments that are conducted on the station. Readers can find their way through a chapter by looking for the section and subsection headings, which are clearly set off from the text.
Statistical Information The tables and figures featured throughout Space Exploration: Triumphs and Tragedies will be of particular use to readers in learning about this issue. Gale, a part of Cengage Learning, believes that making this information available to readers is the most important way to fulfill the goal of this book: to help readers understand the issues and controversies surrounding space exploration and reach their own conclusions about them.
Each table or figure has a unique identifier appearing above it, for ease of identification and reference. Titles for the tables and figures explain their purpose. At the end of each table or figure, the original source of the data is provided.
To help readers understand these often complicated statistics, all tables and figures are explained in the text. References in the text direct readers to the relevant statistics.
Furthermore, the contents of all tables and figures are fully indexed. Please see the opening section of the index at the back of this volume for a description of how to find tables and figures within it. The first is the Important Names and Addresses directory. Here readers will find contact information for a number of government and private organizations that can provide further information on aspects of space exploration. The second appendix is the Resources section, which can also assist readers in conducting their own research.
In this section, the author and editors of Space Exploration: Triumphs and Tragedies describe some of the sources that were most useful during the compilation of this book. The final appendix is the index. This dedicated group of media professionals provides feedback on the series on an ongoing basis.
Their comments allow the editorial staff who work on the project to continually make the series better and more user-friendly. It takes a tremendous amount of power and thrust to hurl something off the surface of Earth. Humans have always been explorers. When ancient humans stumbled across unknown lands or seas, they were compelled to explore them.
They were driven by a desire to dare and conquer new frontiers and by a thirst for knowledge, wealth, and prestige. These are the same motivations that drove people of the twentieth century to venture into space. Getting into space is not easy, and getting back to Earth safely is even tougher. Returning to Earth from space requires conquering another mighty force: friction. Traveling at high speed and rubbing against these molecules produces a fiery blaze that can rip apart most objects.
This blanket is thick and dense near the surface and light and wispy farther away from the planet. About sixty-two miles one hundred kilometers above Earth the atmosphere becomes quite thin. It was not until the s that the proper combination of skills and technology existed to overcome the obstacles of space travel.
The political climate was also just right. Two rich and powerful nations the Soviet Union and the United States devoted their resources to besting one another in space instead of on the battlefield.
It was this spirit of competition that pushed humans off the planet and onto the Moon in The very idea of space exploration has a sense of mystery and excitement about it.
Americans call their space explorers astronauts. The term astronaut is a combination of two Greek words: astron star and nautes sailor. Thus, astronauts are those who sail among the stars. This romantic imagery adds to the allure of space travel. The truth is that space holds many dangers to humans. Space is an inhospitable environment, devoid of air, food, or water. Everywhere it is either too hot or too cold for human life. Potentially harmful radiation flows in the form of cosmic rays from deep space and electromagnetic waves that emanate from the Sun and other stars.
Tiny bits of rock and ice hurtle around in space at high velocities, like miniature missiles. Space Exploration Once that race was over, space priorities changed.
In the twenty-first century, computerized machines do most of the exploring. They investigate planets, asteroids, comets, and the Sun.
Human explorers stay much closer to Earth. They visit and live aboard space stations in orbit a couple hundred miles above the planet. On Earth people dream of longer journeys because most of space is still an unknown sea, just waiting to be explored.
In ancient Greek and Roman mythology gods and goddesses rode chariots through the skies or had wings of their own. In Greek mythology these included Eros god of love , Nike goddess of victory , Hermes the messenger to the gods , and Apollo god of the arts.
Imprisoned on an island, they decide to escape by building wings of feathers and wax for themselves and flying to freedom. In about A. The sailors find the Moon inhabited by strange creatures that are at war with beings living on the Sun.
In a later story, Icaromenippus, an adventurer more successful than Icarus uses eagle and vulture wings to fly to the Moon. At the time, astronomical knowledge was limited, and it was widely believed that Earth was the center of the universe and everything else revolved around it. The Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus — studied the motion of the heavens and drew different conclusions. Copernicus insisted that Earth and the other planets orbit the Sun.
Even though historians are not sure who invented the telescope, they know that the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei — popularized their use. Galileo also improved the design and power of the telescope. He used several to study the cosmos and published his findings in the book Sidereus Nuncius Starry Messenger. At about the same time the German astronomer Johannes Kepler — was also studying the solar system. He discovered that planets move according to mathematical rhythms, and he derived laws of planetary motion from these rhythms that are still being studied.
Newton first unraveled the mysteries of gravity on Earth and then extended his findings into space. He was the first to 2 Introduction to Space Exploration explain how a satellite an orbiting body could be put into orbit around Earth. The cannon shoots out projectiles one after another, using more gunpowder with each successive firing. Newton said each projectile would travel farther horizontally than the previous one before falling.
On November 21, , the two brothers ascended to five hundred feet and sailed across the city of Paris. They landed safely miles from the city and offered champagne to the terrified villagers there. The age of flight had begun. It is a mixture of science and imagination. The term science fiction is generally credited to the writer Hugo Gernsback — , who published a magazine devoted to such stories and started book clubs for science-fiction fans.
Jules Verne The French author Jules Verne — was one of the earliest science-fiction writers to incorporate space travel in his stories. The men build a massive cannon in Florida and shoot a metal sphere toward the Moon. Inside are three astronauts who plan to explore the lunar surface. Their target misses the mark, and they wind up orbiting the Moon instead. It was the first space travel story based on physics, rather than on pure fantasy.
Five years later Verne published the sequel Autour de la lune All around the Moon. The astronauts use small onboard rockets to propel their sphere safely back to Space Exploration Earth, where it splashes down and floats in the ocean. The similarities are striking between these stories and the actual events of the Apollo flights one hundred years later. To accomplish this goal, the men build a large brick sphere set atop a hill.
A track leads down the hill to two giant spinning wheels that are set in a gorge and turned by water from a rushing river. The wheels are to catapult the brick moon into space. One day the brick moon accidentally rolls away from its restraints and is flung into space with some of the workers and their families aboard.
For months their friends on the ground search the night skies with telescopes until finally they spot the satellite in Earth orbit. They are amazed to see its occupants living happily on the satellite surface. On occasion the occupants send signals back to Earth by forming a long line and simultaneously making large and small jumps into the air to spell out messages in Morse code.
The story is prophetic in one interesting respect: during the construction of the brick moon the inventors are plagued by constant design changes, funding problems, and criticism from the public and the press. These difficulties would become common ones for the space programs that later developed. The War of the Worlds featured Martian invaders landing spacecraft near London and terrorizing the population with destructive machines and poisonous gas.
In the end the humans prevail when a common germ kills the Martians. During the s the story was made into a radio play and rewritten for an American audience. On October 30, , the play was broadcast as a mock newscast. The First Men on the Moon also included unfriendly aliens, this time on the Moon. Some daring explorers from Earth travel to the Moon and are captured by antlike creatures called Selenites. The name is derived from Selene, the mythical Greek goddess of the Moon.
The Space Exploration story features little actual science and is generally considered more of a romantic adventure tale set in space. Le voyage dans la lune The Trip to the Moon is an eleven-minute silent film very loosely based on the Verne stories about Moon travel. The explorers manage to escape back to their spacecraft and push it off the edge of the Moon to fall back to Earth. They splash down in the sea and return to France as heroes. Each brother took two flights that day.
The longest flight covered about feet and lasted just under one minute. The modern age of aviation had begun.
The FAI became the official organization for cataloging and verifying aeronautical feats around the world. Aviation got off to a slow start in the United States. The earliest planes were notoriously dangerous, and several aspiring adventurers were killed flying them.
Neither the American public nor the federal government was convinced that airplanes were safe and effective. The mood in Europe was much different. Engineers in France, England, and Germany produced their own versions of reliable and versatile aircraft.
The United States realized that it was behind its European counterparts in aviation expertise, and in an effort to correct the situation the U.
Later, the word national was tacked on, and the agency became known as the NACA. The NACA began an ambitious campaign of research and development into aircraft design and flight theory. By the end of the war in the United States had made great progress in the field of aviation, including the Introduction to Space Exploration 3 development of commercial airlines and postal air services. In addition, public attitudes about flying were beginning to change.
The daring feats of World War I pilots such as the American ace Eddie Rickenbacker — and the German legend Manfred von Richthofen — had brought an air of excitement to flying.
The Orteig Prize inspired one of the greatest flying feats of the century. A young man named Charles A. Lindbergh Jr. Louis, Missouri, to finance his attempt to win the prize. Lindbergh had earned his flying reputation as a successful airmail pilot and barnstormer one who performs flying stunts at air shows. Thirty-three and a half hours later he landed on a Parisian airstrip amid throngs of cheering spectators. Meanwhile, the NACA continued its work in aviation science.
Orville Wright joined the organization and remained a member until his death in During these decades the NACA drove many developments within the field of aeronautics, except for one: rockets. All four were working on rocket science during the early years of the twentieth century. Even though they were scattered around the world, they reached similar conclusions at about the same time. Tsiolkovsky studied the theoretical concepts of rocket flight, such as gravity effects, escape velocity, and fuel needs.
He developed a simple mathematical equation relating the final velocity of a rocket to the initial velocity, the starting and ending mass of the rocket, and the velocity of the rocket exhaust gases. Shearer and Gregory L. The book described how a satellite could be launched into an orbit around Earth.
Figure 1. Tsiolkovsky believed that rockets launched into space would have to include multiple stages. That is, instead of having one big cylinder loaded with fuel, the fuel must be divided up among smaller rocket stages linked together. As each stage uses up its fuel, it could be jettisoned away so the remainder does not have to carry dead weight.
Tsiolkovsky reasoned that this was the only way for the mass of a rocket to be reduced as its fuel supply was depleted. As a teenager, Oberth studied mathematics and began developing sophisticated rocket theories. He studied medicine and physics at the University of Munich. Like his Russian counterpart, Oberth advocated multistage rockets fueled by liquid propellants. Oberth served as a technical adviser on the film.
As World War II — drew near during the s, the Nazi government put Oberth and other VfR members to work developing rockets for warfare, rather than for space flight. After graduating from college, he taught physics at Clark University in his hometown. In all, he was granted seventy patents for his inventions. The first two came in for a liquid-fuel gun rocket and a multistage step rocket. He is believed to be the first person to prove experimentally that a rocket can provide thrust in a vacuum.
The U. Late in World War I Goddard presented the military with the concept for a new rocket weapon, later called the Space Exploration bazooka.
After the war Goddard worked part time as a weapons consultant to the U. The idea was greeted with skepticism from scientists and derision from the media. The New York Times published a scornful editorial ridiculing Goddard for this fanciful notion. Goddard was stung by the criticism and spent the rest of his life avoiding publicity. His low-profile approach kept his work from being well known for many years.
On March 16, , Goddard achieved the firstknown successful flight of a liquid-propelled rocket. See Figure 1. Throughout the next decade he labored quietly in the desert near Roswell, New Mexico, developing increasingly more powerful rockets. In Goddard launched the first supersonic liquid-fuel rocket.
Supersonic means faster than the speed of sound. Sound waves travel at about seven hundred miles per hour, depending on the air temperature. Until his death in , Goddard worked with the military to develop rocket applications for aircraft.
Three decades later the New York Times finally issued an apology for its editorial about him. The date was July 17, , and three American astronauts were on their way to the Moon. The newspaper admitted that Goddard had been right after all. The Nazi government of Germany was eager to use rockets against its enemies. The great talents and minds of the VfR were directed to forget about space travel and concentrate on warfare. During the early s Germany developed the most sophisticated rocket program in the world.
At its helm was the brilliant young Wernher von Braun — He was put in charge of developing a rocket weapon to terrorize the British population. They developed the rocket-powered Vergeltungswaffens weapons of vengeance , which were called V weapons for short. By early the country was being invaded by the Soviets from the east and the Allies from the west. To be in position to surrender to U. The V-1 carried a ton of explosives and traveled at a top speed of about four hundred miles per hour.
This was slow enough that British gunners could blow apart the V-1s as they descended through the air. Thousands of V-1s were launched against England, but roughly half never impacted the ground. Far more lethal was the V This was truly a rocket with a top speed around two thousand miles per hour.
The V-2s traveled far too fast to be shot down and terrified the British public. In exchange, the U. Army agreed to transport the team to the United States and fund its work on a U. The army called the agreement Operation Paperclip. It had no way of knowing that this move was going to put Americans on the Moon. In the NACA initiated the research program in conjunction with the air force and navy.
Because the planes were experimental, they were given the name X-aircraft. On October 14, , the U. The X-1 was only the first of many high-performance planes tested in the program. Eventually, X-planes flew at hypersonic speeds, that is, speeds greater than Mach 5 five times the speed of sound. It was taken up to an altitude of approximately forty-five thousand feet by a carrier plane, a B aircraft, and released.
A rocket engine was then fired to propel the X to incredible speeds and heights. On November 9, , an X flew at Mach 6. On August 22, , an X soared across the boundary into space to an altitude of sixty-seven miles.
This record would remain unbroken for more than four decades. The X-series were high-speed, high-altitude planes unlike any ever built before. Most of them were tested Space Exploration over desolate desert areas near Muroc, California. Daring young test pilots flew the X-series planes. However, this was a dangerous profession. Many pilots were killed or seriously injured while testing the X-series planes.
During this period, which is chiefly marked by a mutual mistrust and rivalry that led to a buildup of arms, both nations developed extensive nuclear weapons programs. Each thought the other was militarily aggressive, deceitful, and dangerous. Each feared the other wanted to take over the world. This paranoia was in full force when space exploration began. Eventually, the project was expanded to include the entire planet and the space around it. Geophysics is a branch of earth science that focuses on physical processes and phenomena in the earth and its vicinity.
The IGY time period was selected to coincide with an expected phase of heightened solar activity. Approximately every eleven years the Sun undergoes a one- to two-year period of extra radioactive and magnetic activity. This is called the solar maximum. The ICSU hoped that rocket technology would progress enough to put satellites in Earth orbit during the next solar maximum and collect data on this phenomenon.
Sixty-seven countries participated in various ways in the IGY project. The American delegation to the ICSU was led by the National Academy of Sciences, which consisted of a team of scientists from businesses, universities, and private and military research laboratories to conduct American activities during the IGY.
Ballistic Missiles Following World War II both the United States and the Soviets began researching the feasibility of attaching warheads to long-range rockets that were capable of traveling halfway round the world. These weapons were eventually called intercontinental ballistic missiles ICBMs. They could be equipped with conventional or nuclear warheads. By the early s the U. This work was highly classified as a matter of national security.
The United States and the Soviet Union both engaged in massive spying campaigns throughout the cold war. The Soviet rocket work was spearheaded by Sergei Korolev — This work proceeded separately from ICBM development.
The navy was charged with developing a rocket capable of carrying a package of scientific instruments into Earth orbit. In testing was still ongoing and proceeding poorly when the United States received shocking news. On the evening of October 4, , the Soviet Union news service announced that the nation had successfully launched the first-ever artificial satellite into Earth orbit.
Launched atop an R-7 Semiorka rocket, the satellite weighed pounds, was about the size of a basketball, and circled Earth every ninety-eight minutes. A Secret Surprise The launch announcement of Sputnik 1 was both a disappointment and a surprise to American scientists. They knew their Soviet counterparts were working on a science satellite for the IGY but had no idea the Soviets had progressed so quickly.
By contrast, the Soviet government forbade its scientists from disclosing any details about their work. Sputnik 1 had been developed and launched in near total secrecy. The American public was even more shocked by the announcement. Millions went outside in the darkness to Introduction to Space Exploration 7 look for the satellite in the night sky.
Witnesses said it was a tiny twinkling pinpoint of light that moved steadily across the horizon. The satellite continuously broadcast radio signals that were picked up by ham radio operators all over the world. Ham radio is communication using short-wave radio signals on small amateur stations.
Laika survived for a week aboard the spacecraft. Decades later scientists admitted that Laika died only hours after launch when she panicked and overheated in her tiny cabin. It had been universally agreed that IGY satellites would broadcast radio signals at a frequency of megahertz. The United States had already built a satellite tracking system designed for this frequency.
However, Sputnik 1 transmitted at much lower frequencies, ensuring that U. The American public was scared by the size of Sputnik 2, which weighed more than one thousand pounds. Furthermore, it was common knowledge that the United States did not have a rocket capable of carrying that much weight into space.
There was an uproar in the media, and politicians demanded to know how the Soviet Union had gotten so far ahead of the United States in space technology. President Dwight D. Eisenhower — charged the U. For the first time, the American public realized that the Soviets probably had the capability to launch long-range nuclear missiles against the United States. A month later there was even further dismay when the Soviets launched a second satellite.
The military turned to von Braun and his team of rocket scientists working for the U. On January 31, , the first American satellite soared into orbit. Sputnik 2 was much larger than its predecessor and carried a live dog, a husky-mix named Laika, into orbit.
At the time the Soviet news agency bragged that A few months later the Soviets answered with Sputnik 3, a miniature physics laboratory sent into orbit to collect scientific data. Even though it was a civilian agency charged with operating peaceful missions in space, NASA would rely heavily on military resources to achieve its goals. Gagarin was born in a village near Gzhatsk now Gagarin in central Russia. He grew up in a peasant family, dreaming of becoming a pilot.
Before being recruited to be a cosmonaut, Gagarin was serving as a lieutenant in the Soviet air force. His cramped spacecraft was equipped with a radio for communicating with ground control.
How wonderful. It is amazing. There is a common misconception among the public that there is no gravity in space. This is not true. Actually, the force of gravity remains strong for great distances around Earth.
His spacecraft included a computerized automatic pilot, in case Gagarin lost consciousness or was unable to move. This fear proved to be unfounded.
The mission showed that humans can not only withstand weightlessness but can also function quite well in it. Shepard, Jr. On May 5, , Alan B. Shepard Jr.
He spent fifteen minutes and twenty-eight seconds in a suborbital flight. Suborbital means less than one orbit. In other words, a suborbital flight does not complete an entire circle around Earth. A few months later Gherman Titov — , the second cosmonaut in space, completed seventeen and a half orbits around Earth. NASA knew it would be a year or more before it could accomplish a similar feat.
The United States was tired of coming in second place. Because there was no way to beat the Soviets at the orbital space race, President John F. Kennedy — decided to start a new race. His advisers recommended that the United States put a manned spacecraft in orbit around the Moon or even land a man on the Moon. Either one would require the development of a huge new rocket to supply the lifting power needed to boost a spaceship out of Earth orbit.
Neither the Soviets nor the Americans had such a rocket. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish. He ejected from his spacecraft somewhere over Russia and parachuted to the ground. He became a national hero and an international sensation.
His picture was on the front page of every major newspaper in the world. Most of the features on the Moon were named during the s by the Italian astronomer Giambattista Riccioli — Riccioli was a Jesuit priest, a member of the Roman Catholic order the Society of Jesus, which is devoted to missionary and educational work.
At the request of the church, Riccioli devoted his life to astronomy and telescopic studies. At the time, the writings of Kepler and Copernicus were popular and controversial.
He published a detailed lunar map that he developed with Francesco Maria Grimaldi — , a fellow Jesuit and Italian physicist. This map featured Latin names for lunar features, elevations and depressions were named after famous astronomers and philosophers, and large dark flat areas that looked like bodies of water were named Oceans or Seas. Four hundred years later, humans on opposite sides of Earth took aim at these features.
Some probes proved successful, and some did not. Four NASA probes crashed into the Moon, but they had beamed back valuable photographs before impacting the lunar surface. Both countries needed lunar data to support their efforts to send humans to the Moon. During this time Soviet officials did not even acknowledge that they had a manned lunar program. Those in the U. Over the next two years five more successful Mercury flights were conducted.
In a series of ten manned Gemini missions began. They were completed near the end of Soon after it started, it became apparent that the Moon program was going to be expensive. We choose 10 Introduction to Space Exploration to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard, because that goal will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win.
Development of the Saturn rocket series began in under the direction of von Braun. He had actually been pitching the idea to the military for several years. Before the Apollo program NASA used relatively small rockets that were capable of lifting a few hundred to a few thousand pounds into Earth orbit.
The Scout rocket was used to launch small satellites and probes weighing up to three hundred pounds. During the mids the military replaced most of its Atlas rockets with Minuteman missiles. Modified Atlas rockets were used to launch satellites and for the Mercury program. The Titan II was used during the Gemini program.
Legend has it that the Saturn got its name because it was one step beyond the Jupiter rocket, just as Saturn is the next step beyond Jupiter in the solar system. The Saturn V, with a height of feet, is the largest rocket ever built. It had to be to push the one-hundred-ton Apollo spacecraft toward the Moon. In September an unmanned probe called Zond 5 became the first spacecraft to travel around the Moon and return to Earth.
On January 27, , three American astronauts— Virgil I. Grissom — , Edward H. White — , and Roger B. Chaffee — —were killed when a flash fire raced through their capsule during a routine practice drill.
They were the first human casualties of the space program. To honor their memory, their tragic mission was named Apollo 1. Some politicians even called for the program to end, but Apollo continued.
The next manned Apollo mission was launched on October 11, Apollo 7 successfully conducted a flight test and returned to Earth. It was followed in rapid succession by the more ambitious missions of Apollo 8, Apollo 9, and Apollo 10, each of which tested a lunar or command module in lunar or Earth orbit.
The mission to set humans on the Moon was named Apollo 11 and scheduled for July By this time the Soviets had desperately tried to get their own manned lunar program going. However, the N-1 rocket kept failing its launch tests. The Soviets realized that it would not be ready before the Apollo Space Exploration 11 launch. Still hoping to steal some of the thunder from the Americans, the Soviets launched a robotic probe named Luna 15 to the Moon. It was designed to gather samples from the lunar surface and return to Earth before the Apollo 11 expedition.
Launched on July 13, , Luna 15 completed fifty-two Moon orbits before it crashed into the lunar surface on July 21, , and was lost. Late that evening the astronaut Neil A. Armstrong — stepped out of the spacecraft to become the first human to stand on the Moon. Approximately half a billion people on Earth watched the historic event on television. There were six more Apollo missions to the Moon before the program ended in Schirra Jr.
Slayton — The men had to pass strenuous batteries of physical, mental, and medical tests to become astronauts and begin their training to go into space. To the American public, the Mercury Seven captured the bold and daring spirit of famous flyers such as Richthofen and Lindbergh.
They were instant superstars and began receiving thousands of fan letters. Once NASA realized the great popularity of the astronauts, it used them as goodwill ambassadors for the agency. The astronauts traveled around the country speaking to civic groups and clubs to elicit public support for the space program. NASA scientists originally envisioned astronauts as mere guinea pigs for space experiments.
They were intended to be passive passengers covered with medical sensors and sealed inside space capsules completely controlled by operators on the ground through onboard computers. The astronauts rebelled at this notion and insisted on many changes, including installation of windows and manual piloting controls on the space capsules. When the Gemini program began, NASA selected nine more astronaut candidates and soon dozens after that.
In the book, Wolfe describes the tremendous pressures put on the first astronauts during the space program, their dedication to serving their country, and how they reacted to fame and glory. In the book was made into a popular movie of the same name.
John Pike et al. In a joint project was undertaken in which American and Soviet scientists shared information they had learned about space biology and medicine. The treaty provides a basic framework for activities that are and are not allowed in space and during space travel. Over the next four decades it would be signed by more than one hundred nations. In NASA proposed the development of American and Soviet spacecraft that could dock with each other in space for future missions of mutual interest.
The mission was largely symbolic, and many people considered it wasted money that could have been spent on space exploration. Space Exploration Near the end of the Apollo program the two countries agreed to a number of cooperative projects including the sharing of lunar samples, weather satellite data, and space medical data.
Even though NASA carried out six more Apollo missions, public interest and political support for them faded quickly. Neither the U. Both governments decided to concentrate on putting manned scientific space stations in low Earth orbit LEO. LEO is the orbit of choice for most satellites and for all crewed missions. Spacecraft in LEO travel at about seventeen thousand miles per hour and circle Earth once every ninety minutes or so.
This region poses a hazard to human life and to sensitive electronic equipment. These included stations called Salyut 1 through Salyut 7 and the more ambitious space station Mir. Dozens of cosmonauts visited and inhabited the stations, often for many months. The Soviets repeatedly set and broke human space duration records at their stations. In the cosmonaut Valery Polyakov — completed a Even in this stood as the longest period spent in space by any human.
It orbited within LEO of to miles above Earth. Without political support the agency had to put this plan on hold. Instead, NASA concentrated on a new type of reusable space plane called the space shuttle. The space shuttle was to the be the workhorse of the U. Before the shuttle program, all satellites were launched aboard expendable rockets that could not be reused.
The reusability of the shuttle was one of its best selling points. Also, each shuttle could carry a crew of five to seven people that could conduct scientific experiments in LEO and deploy and repair satellites as needed.
Despite a number of design challenges, the first space shuttle was ready for flight by On April 12, , the first test mission was conducted. Before the end of the year a space shuttle carried an orbiting solar observatory into LEO. Two dozen more missions were carried out before disaster struck in Missions were rotated between the vehicles to perform needed maintenance and repairs.
On January 28, , the space shuttle Challenger exploded seventy-three seconds after liftoff. All seven crewmembers aboard were killed. The shuttle fleet was grounded for more than two years, during which time NASA restructured the program and redesigned key elements of the spacecraft. In October space shuttle flights resumed once again. By this time the Soviet Union was politically disintegrating. The Russian Republic took over the space program begun by the Soviet Union. The Soviet space program came under the operation of the new Russian Space Agency in The agency was renamed the Russian Aviation and Space Agency Rosaviakosmos in , when it was assigned additional responsibilities in aviation.
In those responsibilities were removed and the agency was renamed the Russian Federal Space Agency Roscosmos. International Plans During the s the United States and Russia entered a new era of cooperative space ventures.
American astronauts visited the Mir station and Russian cosmonauts traveled aboard U. The Russians agreed. ISS construction began in The station was designed for continuous human inhabitation and detailed scientific investigations. The Americans and Russians took turns adding components to the station and crewing it with astronauts and cosmonauts.
Throughout and the next Introduction to Space Exploration 13 three years nearly all shuttle missions were devoted to ISS construction. During the first mission of another space shuttle was lost in an accident. On February 1, , the space shuttle Columbia disintegrated during reentry over the western United States. Again, seven crewmembers were killed. The shuttle fleet was grounded for more than two years, ceasing construction on the ISS. Russian spacecraft ferried supplies to the station and handled crew changes.
In the science-fiction film Star Wars debuted and became one of the most popular movies of all time. The movie was renowned for its story, characters, adventure, and special effects. The Star Wars franchise went on to include five more highly successful films and a book series. In July the Space Shuttle Program resumed operations with a successful return-to-flight test mission. ISS construction proceeded in and as six space shuttle missions were conducted.
Additional missions are planned through , when the Space Shuttle Program is scheduled to end. They were able to produce works that were more sophisticated than those of the past. One of the most innovative of these authors was Gene Roddenberry — During the mids he created the television show Star Trek.
This was a futuristic tale about a mixed crew of humans and aliens that explored the galaxy in the starship Enterprise during the twenty-third century. The television show was not popular during its original run but over the next few decades it developed a loyal fan base and spawned a number of movies. In thousands of Star Trek fans wrote to the U.
NASA gave the name to the prototype shuttle model used for flight testing. Another notable science-fiction work of the s was the film A Space Odyssey , which was based on a story by Arthur C. Clarke — Astronauts exploring the Moon find a mysterious artifact. Believing that it came from Jupiter, they set off for that planet on an amazing spacecraft. The ship is equipped with a supercomputer named HAL that malfunctions and turns against the human crew. The film features little dialogue, 14 Introduction to Space Exploration Hollywood movies featuring hostile space aliens invading Earth were a staple of s pop culture.
Such films captured the paranoia and fear that Americans felt about the communist threat from the Soviet Union. However, horrific and murderous aliens remain a staple of science-fiction films, as evidenced in the popularity of Alien and its sequels, Independence Day , and War of the Worlds It is cheaper to build and send mechanized robotic spacecraft to do the exploring.
During the s the Apollo program dominated the spotlight, but it was not the only space exploration project in operation. During the s more sophisticated robotic spacecraft landed on Mars or were sent to fly by the outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. These missions were given heroic names, including Mariner, Viking, and Voyager. In a robotic spacecraft called Magellan was put into orbit around Venus on a four-year mission to collect data about the planet.
The spacecraft was named after Ferdinand Magellan ? In a spacecraft named after Galileo Galilei began orbiting Jupiter. Interplanetary exploration is tough, even for machines. However, a lander from this mission was lost on its way to the surface. The rovers were expected to last about three months, but as of Space Exploration February they were still exploring the surface of Mars. That spacecraft is scheduled to arrive there in Not all space exploration requires long-distance travel.
Advances in computers and telescopes have allowed scientists to do a lot of exploring with robotic spacecraft stationed nearby Earth. Dozens of these high-technology machines take photographs, measure radiation waves, and collect data on galactic and solar phenomena.
The latest generation of robotic explorers are designed to snatch samples in outer space and return them to Earth. In September it crash-landed in the Utah desert following an equipment malfunction during reentry.
Regardless, some of its valuable cargo was saved—samples of the solar wind charged particles emitted from the Sun collected a million miles from Earth.
Stardust collected dust particles believed to be 4. Equipment and communication problems have plagued the mission, and scientists are hopeful, but not certain, that the samples were collected and will return to Earth in Even though they are not really space explorers, they would not be possible without the technology of the space age. The spacecraft was equipped with television cameras to film cloud cover around Earth. This is an example of an active satellite one that collects data or performs some other activity and transmits signals back to Earth.
Space Exploration Over the next few decades weather satellites grew increasingly more sophisticated in their capabilities.
It was a large metallic sphere that reflected radio signals. NASA maintains a whole series of communication satellites in Earth orbit that allow the agency to communicate with astronauts and relay data to robotic spacecraft during missions.
They are called Tracking and Data Relay Satellites. In other words, they move around Earth at the same speed that it revolves around its axis. This is called a geosynchronous orbit. They are in a geostationary orbit. Before the invention of satellites, navigational signals were transmitted by land-based systems using antennas. Atmospheric gases undergo electrical and chemical changes within the ionosphere. This is what gives it reflective properties. During the s the U.
This system relies on satellites in Earth orbit to handle signal transmissions. During the s GPS was made available for international civil use. Over the next two decades it became one of the most popular navigational tools in the world.
For more than three decades, the only way for humans to access space was through government-operated space programs. Diamandis — , an aerospace engineer and entrepreneur in space tourism. Diamandis believed his prize would launch another new industry: private space travel.
Space enthusiasts Anousheh Ansari — and her brother-in-law Amir Ansari — made a multimilliondollar contribution to the prize fund.
The Ansaris were born in Iran but had immigrated to the United States and formed a successful telecommunications business. His first investors were businesspeople in St. Over the next decade Diamandis received support from a number of backers, including Arthur C. Clarke, the astronaut Edwin E. Buzz Aldrin Jr. However, the foundation still struggled to raise the funds it needed. The rules required that the spacecraft carry three people or at least one person plus the equivalent weight of two people to an altitude of at least one hundred kilometers.
The feat had to be accomplished twice within a two-week period using the same spacecraft. Scaled Composites used a two-part flight sequence to boost SpaceShipOne into space. A manned twin-turbojet plane called White Knight lifted off from a runway carrying the smaller manned space plane attached to its belly.
After reaching an altitude of approximately forty-seven thousand feet, the space plane was released. Navy Federal Car Buying Service. Time for some serious nostalgia. Musical Instruments For Sale. Learn about our history, explore drink recipes and more. The auction clock restarts from 10 seconds every time someone bids.
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